Karl Fischer Water


One of the methods Galbraith has to analyze water is by Karl Fischer (KF) water analysis.  We can provide both coulometric and volumetric KF water analysis.  This test quantifies free water and waters of hydration.

Sample Preparation

Samples are weighed on an analytical balance and are then either transferred directly to the titration cell, or are added to a sample oven.  In the case of the sample oven, moisture from the sample is evolved from the sample by heat and is transported to the titration cell by way of an inert gas.  Samples may be handled under inert atmosphere (argon or nitrogen) at client request.  We recommend handling under inert atmosphere for any sample that exhibits hygroscopic properties. Karl Fischer Water.


We offer several different methods for measuring KF water.  The following methods are based on industry accepted methods (USP and ASTM) but also include additional QC requirements to ensure the accuracy of results.

Click below to view the method summary for each method:



We also provide KF water testing by USP <921> methods 1a and 1c.  Click here to visit the USP website to view the methods (must have USP login)


Any substance that interferes with the KF reaction will interfere with this test.  Interferences may be reduced or eliminate through use of the sample oven.

Quantitation Limit

0.1 mg of water.  Results are reported based on the mass of sample taken for the analysis.  Results below the quantitation limit are reported as a less than value, i.e. <2000 ppm.


Results are reported in ppm (wt/wt) unless another unit is requested.